The Sun, and everything that orbits it, is located in the Milky Way galaxy. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the solar photospheric composition. Joseph Fraunhofer. Sun – The sun is a star about 330,000 times the size of the earth. Solar spectrum showing the dark absorption lines. This means the particles have an increased or reduced number of electrons. The Sun is the source of an enormous amount of energy, a portion of which provides Earth with … Escape velocity = 618 km/s Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas, but with most of the particles ionized. Because the Earth moves about 1 /12 of the way around the Sun while the Sun makes one rotation, the synodic period is somewhat greater than the period that would be observed … Composition of the Solar System. As explained in Radiation and Spectra, we can use a star’s absorption line spectrum to determine what elements are present. The Spectra of the Sun. Deep in its core, the sun is extremely dense and hot, with temperature reaching over 15 million degrees Kelvin. For example, sodium lines as observed in the sun’s spectrum means that the sun’s atmosphere contains some sodiums atoms. The Sun's extremely hot outer layer, the corona, has a very different chemical composition from the cooler inner layers, but the reason for this has puzzled scientists for decades. It is composed of about ¾ hydrogen and ¼ helium, with a small percentage of other, heavier elements. Find out more about composition of the Sun, Earth and Moon! Located at the centre of the solar system and influencing the motion of all the other bodies through its gravitational force is the Sun, which in itself contains more than 99 percent of the mass of the system. The composition of the sun is 71% hydrogen, 27.1% helium and less than 2% of all other elements. The center temperature is modeled to be 15.5 million K. The Sun is fueled by the proton cycle of nuclear fusion. Composition The sun is made up of a blazing combination of gases. The Sun's Composition. About 73% of the Sun’s mass is hydrogen, and another 25% is helium. CHEMICAL GEOLOGY --- ISOTOPE GEOSCIENCE ELSEVIER Chemical Geology 120 (1995) 223-253 The composition of the Earth' W.F. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. Ever since Newton showed that sunlight is a mixture of all colors, scientists have studied the Sun's spectrum. Let’s begin by asking what the solar atmosphere is made of. Composition of the Sun’s Atmosphere. * The Sun’s rotational period as observed from Earth is known as the synodic period . The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure, and evolution of both the Sun and our Solar System. More specifically, our Sun is in a spiral arm called the Orion Spur that extends outward from the Sagittarius arm. It turns out that the Sun contains the same elements as Earth but not in the same proportions. From there, the Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, bringing the planets, asteroids, comets and other objects along with it. Sun, star around which Earth and the other components of the solar system revolve. It is the dominant body of the system, constituting more than 99 percent of its entire mass. In her 1925 Ph.D. thesis work, Cecilia Payne invented modern methods of interpreting spectra of the sun and stars. McDonough"', S.-s. Sun a,b 'Research School ofEarth Sciences, TheAustralian National UnirersitY, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia bAustrahan Geological Suri,ey Organisation, GPO Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601, .Australia Received 15 May 1994; revision accepted 9 … These gases are actually in the form of plasma. System, constituting more than 99 percent of its entire mass begin by asking what the atmosphere! 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