Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam II — (25 juin 1728 – 19 novembre 1806) est un empereur moghol de 1759 à 1806. Ali Gohar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. By the time the famine occurred it became very clear that the Mughal Empire was no longer a major political power, not only in the general world but also within South Asia. And it is believed that the Sikhs even had informants, probably even the Viziers of Shah Alam II. Mirza Najaf Khan, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army. Shah Alam II's absence from Delhi was due to the terms of the treaty he had signed with the British. [24] Mughals were defeated by Marathas in 1757; and Mughal possessions and territories were under the annexation of the Jats led by Suraj Mal. 1781, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Baghel Singh laid siege to the city. The son of Jahandar Shah. Upon his father's accession, he became the "Wali Ahd" (Crown Prince) of the empire, and became his father's principal agent, though almost all power lay in the Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk's hand. One of his first acts was to strengthen and raise a new Mughal Army, under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan. [25], Suraj Mal's son Jawahar Singh, further extended the Jat power in Northern India and captured the territory in Doab, Ballabgarh and Agra. Media related to Akbar II at Wikimedia Commons, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Akbar_II&oldid=991668216, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles needing additional references from May 2017, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 'Abu Nasir Mu'in ud-din Muhammad Akbar Shah II, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 06:16. Shah Alam II was the Mughal emperor till 1806. But the conflict soon involved the intervention of the assertive East India Company. In 1760, after Shah Alam's militia gaining control over pockets in Bengal, Bihar and parts of Odisha, Prince Ali Gauhar and his Mughal Army of 30,000 intended to overthrow Mir Jafar and Feroze Jung III after they tried to capture or kill him by advancing towards Awadh and Patna in 1759. Shah Alam II died of natural causes on 19 November 1806. His grave lies next to the dargah of the 13th century, Sufi saint, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi in a marble enclosure, along with that of Bahadur Shah I, (Shah Alam I) and Shah Alam II. Mother Qudsia Begum (3rd wife of Shah Alam II) Enthroned:19 November 1806.at Red Fort, Delhi . 1799, Ranjit Singh brought all the Sikh Misls together to form an empire, the Sikh Empire. Umumnya Shah Alam boleh dibahagikan kepada utara, tengah, selatan dan sebahagian … Akbar II is credited with starting the Hindu-Muslim unity festival Phool Walon Ki Sair. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. After his baptism which was performed by Baghel Singh, Zabita Khan was given Sikh name Dharam Singh. Mughal empire disintegrated to such an extent that Shah Alam II was only left with Delhi city to rule. Shah Alam II, was well supported by Jean Law de Lauriston and 200 Frenchmen during his campaign to regain the Eastern Subahs (during the Seven Years' War). Title: [The Last Great Mogul. The demands were agreed upon by Shah Alam II with a written agreement. After killing Ghulam Qadir and restoring Shah Alam II to the throne, a Maratha garrison permanently occupied Delhi in 1788 and ruled on north India for next 15 years until they were overthrown by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803.[17]. [15] The emperor became a client of the Maratha whose Peshwa demanded tribute, which the Moguls are known to have paid so as to avoid any further conflict with the Confederacy. Very soon however, Najib-ud-Daula, forced the usurper Feroze Jung III to flee from the capital after he gathered a large Mughal Army outside Delhi, which deposed the recreant Shah Jahan III. He became the emperor of the Mughal Empire; his power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The kingdom of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam', Palam being a suburb of Delhi. Map of India in 1795, 11 years before the death of Shah Alam II, Shah 'Alam conveying the Grant of the Diwani to Lord Clive (1818), harvnb error: no target: CITEREFImperial_Gazetteer_of_India_vol._IV1908 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813, Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material, Volume 3, The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan, "suffren letter shah alam - Google Search", "Rumi Darwaza - Rumi Darwaza Lucknow - Rumi Darwaja in Lucknow India", The province of Agra, Author: Dharma Bhanu Srivastava, page 8-10, "Manas: Culture, Architecture of India, Taj Mahal", The Province of Agra: Its History and Administration, Marathas and the Marathas Country: The Marathas, The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan – World Wide School, Marathas and the English Company 1707–1800, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shah_Alam_II&oldid=995094383, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with self-published sources from December 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 'Abdu'llah Jalal ud-din Abu'l Muzaffar Ham ud-din Muhammad 'Ali Gauhar Shah-i-'Alam II, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 05:19. In the year 1783, Farzana Zeb un-Nissa had saved Delhi from a possible invasion by a force of 30,000 Sikh troops, under Baghel Singh, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. Mughal emporer shah Alam II accused Zabita Khan of high treason. In 1778, after a Sikh incursion into Delhi, Shah Alam ordered their defeat by appointing, the Mughal Grand Vizier, Majad-ud-Daula marched with 20,000 Mughal troops against the Sikh army into hostile territories, this action led to the defeat of the Mughal Army at Muzzaffargarh and later at Ghanaur, due to the mounted casualties Shah Alam II reappointed Mirza Najaf Khan, who soon died of natural circumstances leaving the Mughal Empire weaker than ever. Entrance gate built by the Nawab of Oudh, replicating the Sublime Porte (Bab-i Hümayun) in Istanbul. He reigned from 1806 to 1837. In 1760, the invading forces of Abdali were driven away by the Marathas, led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who deposed Shah Jahan III, the puppet Mughal emperor of Feroze Jung III, and installed Shah Alam II as the rightful emperor under Maratha control.[4][5]. Mir Jafar also implored the aid of Robert Clive, but it was Major John Caillaud, who dispersed Prince Ali Gauhar's army in 1761 after four major battles including Battle of Patna, Battle of Sirpur, Battle of Birpur and Battle of Siwan. [29][self-published source], Nawab Majad-ud-Daula was followed by a known enemy of the Mughals, the grandson of Najib Khan, Ghulam Qadir, with his Sikh allies forced Shah Alam II to appoint him as the Grand Vizier of the Mughal Empire. Meanwhile, Mir Qasim's relations with the British East India company began to worsen. In 1779 the newly reformed Mughal Army decisively defeated Zabita Khan and his Sikh allies, the rebels lost 5,000 men including their leader and therefore did not return during the lifetime of Mirza Najaf Khan[citation needed]. Three servants and two water-carriers who tried to help the bleeding emperor were beheaded and according to one account, Ghulam Qadir would pull the beard of the elderly Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. He sent Ram Mohan Roy as an ambassador to Britain and gave him the title of Raja. Shah Alam arrested the entire family of Zabita Khan and severely humiliated him after the war with Mughal. In 1777 Mirza Najaf Khan decisively defeated Zabita Khan's forces and repelled the Sikhs after halting their raids. Shah Alam mempunyai sejumlah 56 seksyen. In the year 1771 the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde returned to northern India and even captured Delhi. [28], Zabita Khan was the Rohilla chief who reached a settlement with the Sikhs and merely became their puppet. He reigned from 19/11/1806 to 28/09/1837 , till his death. Simultaneously they replaced Persian text with English text on the company's coins, which no longer carried the emperor's name. Shuja-ud-Daula is also known to have assisted the famous Alivardi Khan on various occasions when the territories of the Nawab of Bengal, were being ravaged by Raghoji I Bhonsle and his Maratha renegades… The Royal Chamber in the Public Audience Hall in the Middle of Yazdah Darreh, with the Ruler, Alam Bahador Badshah, and the Great Commanders, a page from the Lady Coote Album. During one massive assault, Jats sieged Agra in 1761, after 20 days on 12 June 1761 the Mughal forces at Agra surrendered to Jats. His son Abdul Qadir was also accused of betrayal. Born: 22 April 1760 (1760-04-22) Mukundpur Father: Shah Alam.II. Ali Gohar was born to "Shahzada" (Prince) Aziz-ud-Din, son of the deposed Mughal Emperor Jahandar Shah, on 25 June 1728. Shah Alam ordered … Alongside his father, he grew up in semi-captivity in the Salatin quarters of the Red Fort. But Aurangzeb, when he became emperor abolished all celebration of Hindu festivals in the Red Fort. Mir Qasim soon had the Mughal Emperor's investiture as Subedar of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha, and agreed to pay an annual revenue of 2.4 million dam. Shah Alam also penned famous book Ajaib-ul-Qasas which is considered one of the earliest and prominent book of prose in Urdu. Prince Mirza Mughal, the heir apparent was himself killed in battle. [23] Jats plundered the city as was the norm of victors during those days. In 1760, after Shah Alam's militia gaining control over pockets in Bengal, Bihar and parts of Odisha, Prince Ali Gauhar and his Mughal Army of 30,000 intended to overthrow Mir Jafar and Feroze Jung III after they tried to capture or kill him by advancing towards Awadh and Patna in 1759. The Bengal Famine in 1770 was a massive catastrophe that signalled the end of the Mughal Empire and disorder in the Indian Subcontinent. After negotiations assuring peace Shah Alam II was escorted by the British to meet Mir Qasim the new Nawab of Bengal, who was nominated after the sudden death of Miran. Bahadur Shah II, Son of Akbar Shah II, Grandson of Shah Alum II, Great Grandson of Arurangzeb, titular King of Delhi] Number: 2007.26.204.1 The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the combined armies of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh; the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro. Shah Alam’s best and loyal officers were long gone, and he knew first-hand Mahadji Shinde’s capabilities. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Muhammad Farrukhsiyar, the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, and deputy governor of Bengal, had not reconciled himself to Jahandar Shah's enthronement; and when he heard of his father's death, he proclaimed himself emperor at Patna in April, 1712. His power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The empire of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam', Palam being a suburb of Delhi. His declared reign extended to the 24 Parganas of the Sundarbans,[11] Mir Qasim, Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad (and Bihar),[11]Raja of Banares,[12] Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab of Ghazipur, Sahib of Punjab, Hyder Ali's Mysore,[12] Nawab of Kadapa and Nawab of Kurnool, Nawab of the Carnatic of Arcot and Nellore,[13] Nawab of Junagarh, Rohilkhand of Lower Doab, Rohilkhand of Upper Doab, and Nawab of Bhawalpur. They struck coins and read the khutba (Friday sermons) in his name. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Najaf Khan as prime minister, granted sovereign rights to the Sikhs as agreement.[27]. Shah Rangeela (only son) through a dancing girl named Kudsiya Begam. In 1782, he was appointed the viceroy of Delhi until 1799. [20] The internal conflicts within the Mughal imperial court would not allow the emperor to make such a bold move against the British. Petty, avaricious and insane Ghulam Qadir ravaged the palaces in search of the Mughal treasure believed to be worth Rs. Shah Alam II. which were carried off and melted down by Suraj Mal in 1764. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a … Even the corrupt and treasonous former Grand Vizier, Majad-ud-Daula was restored to his former office, he later colluded with the Sikhs and reduced the size of the Mughal Army from over 20,000 to only 5,000 thus bringing the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II at the mercy of his ruffian enemies. The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II (1759–1806) made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline but ultimately had to seek the protection of the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between … His father had rebelled several times against Delhi, and, after defeating him, Shah Alam had taken Ghulam Qadir, then eight or 10 years old, hostage. But his son and heir apparent Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht and Najib-ul-Daula, represented the emperor for the next 12 years in Delhi. Court intrigues encouraged by the East India company forced Mir Qasim to leave Bengal, Bihar and Odisha. Died: 28 September 1837 (1837-09-29) (age 77) Delhi Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar[1] (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Apr 10, 2017 - Explore Muhammad Sobaan's board "Shah Alam II" on Pinterest. [16], After killing Ghulam Qadir and restoring Shah Alam II to the throne, a Maratha garrison permanently occupied Delhi in 1788 and ruled on north India for next two decades until they were usurped by the British East India Company in the Second Anglo-Maratha War.[17]. [31], Thankful for his intervention, he honoured Mahadji Shinde with the titles of Vakil-ul-Mutlaq (Regent of the Empire) and Amir-ul-Amara (Head of the Amirs). An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second child and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani. After ten horrible weeks, during which Ghulam Qadir stripped the princesses of the royal family naked and forced them to dance naked before him (after which they jumped into Yamuna river to drown) and the honour of the royal family and prestige of the Mughal Empire reached its lowest ebb, Mahadaji Shinde intervened and killed Ghulam Qadir, taking possession of Delhi on 2 October 1788. Ali Gohar, historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. His poems were guided, compiled and collected by Mirza Fakhir Makin.[6]. Nadir Shah not only invaded India but also imprisoned the Mughal Emperor and looted Delhi in 1739 >>>>> later mughals bahadur shah zafar farrukh siyar shah alam ii nadir shah. Shah Alam II, was escorted by Mahadaji Shinde and left Allahabad in May 1771 and in January 1772 reached Delhi. [29] A drunken ruffian, Ghulam Qadir behaved with gross brutality to the emperor and his family. After the murder of Alamgir II, his son Ali Gauhar succeeded him by taking the title of Shah Alam. Shah Alam II authored his own Diwan of poems and was known by the pen-name Aftab. This is the final part of a three-part series on the unfortunate Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After the Battle of Delhi (1803), during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, on 14 September 1803 British troops entered Delhi ending the Maratha rule on the Mughals, bringing Shah Alam, then a blind old man, seated under a tattered canopy, under British protection. Large Mughal Army encampments during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. Their forces were reinforced by the forces of Shuja-ud-Daula, Najib-ud-Daula and Ahmad Shah Bangash. Rohilla chief entered Delhi unleashing terror and causing Shah Alam II to go blind in August 1786. Prince Ali Gauhar successfully advanced as far as Patna, which he later besieged with a combined army of over 40,000 in order to capture or kill Ramnarian a sworn enemy of the Mughals. Mir Qasim on his part encouraged Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II to engage the British. [2][3], Shah Alam faced many invasions, mainly by the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha Empire, who maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi and the Afghans led by Abdali. Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim defected to Shah Alam II. Prince Ali Gauhar, afterwards Emperor Shah Alam II, had been the heir apparent of his father Alamgir II. The Mughal Emperor no longer had the military power to enforce his will, but he commanded respect as a dignified member of the House of Timur in the length and breadth of the country. The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on 12 August 1765, between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor Alamgir II, and Robert Clive, of the East India Company, in the aftermath of the Battle of Buxar of 22 October 1764. The traitor was imprisoned and a sum of two million dam in stolen revenue recovered from him. The Rumi Darwaza, which stands sixty feet tall,[21] was modelled (1784) after the Sublime Porte (Bab-i Hümayun) in Istanbul, is one of the very important examples of the exchange between the two cultures.[22]. The British feared that the French military officers might overthrow Maratha power and use the authority of the Mughal emperor to further French ambition in India. Feroze Jung III was the regent imposed by the Maratha Confederacy in 1757, who assassinated Alamgir II and prominent members of the imperial family, within the Maratha controlled city of Delhi; Shah Alam II managed to escape to safety with the Nawab of Awadh.[10]. Father of : Last Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. Mir Jafar was in terror at the near demise of his cohort and sent his own son Miran to relieve Ramnarian and retake Patna. Many surviving princes settled in various provinces of India, but some settled in Burma and Bengal since a large number of imperial family members, along with Emperor Bahadur Shah II were exiled to Rangoon in Burma. Zabita Khan was captured and executed by the Marathas for the atrocities committed by him in the city.[28]. He restored Shah Alam II to the throne and acted as his protector. Shah Alam II, (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) was the eighteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Simmering Sikhs rose once again in the year 1764 and overran the Mughal Faujdar of Sirhind, Zain Khan Sirhindi, who fell in battle and ever since the Sikhs perpetually raided and took the bounties from the lands as far as Delhi practically every year. The treaty was handwritten by I'tisam-ud-Din, a Bengali Muslim scribe and diplomat to the Mughal Empire. Mirza Najaf Khan had restored a sense of order to the Mughal finances and administration and particularly reformed the Mughal Army. But Emperor Shah Alam revived celebrations of these Hindu festivals in… [citation needed] The Nawabs and Subedars still sought formal sanction of the Mughal Emperor on their accession and valued the titles he bestowed upon them. Akbar II holding audience on the Peacock Throne. During his regime, in 1835, the East India Company (EIC) discontinued calling itself subject of the Mughal Emperor and issuing coins in his name. Il est tour à tour le jouet des Anglais et des Marathes, dont sa faiblesse et son irrésolution accrurent de plus en plus l … The emperor resided in the fort of Allahabad for six years. This led to the former Grand Vizier's arrest for causing miscalculations and collaborating with the enemies of the emperor. 250 million. He was the second son of Shah Alam II and the father of Bahadur Shah II. Akbar II (22 April 1760 – 28 September 1837), also known as Akbar Shah II, was the penultimate Mughal emperor of India. 25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806 Shah Alam II (1728–1806 CE), also known as Ali Gauhar, was the eighteenth Mughal Emperor and son of the murdered Alamgir II, he escaped to Allahabad in December 1759 and later successfully defended the throne from the traitorous Imad-ul-Mulk, who appointed Shah Jahan III as the emperor. The cultural life of Delhi as a whole flourished during his reign. His grave lies next to the dargah of the 13th century Sufi saint, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi in a marble enclosure along with that of Bahadur Shah I (also known as Shah Alam I), and Akbar Shah II. Mirza Najaf Khan is also known to have introduced the more-effective Firelock muskets through his collaboration with Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal.[19]. A member of the British East India Company enjoying a Durbar. Ghulam Qadir was the son of Zabita Khan, Ruler of Rohilkhand. They carried the bounty, including the two great silver doors to the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal. MUHAMMAD AKBAR-II. Shuja-ud-Daula was the son of the Mughal Grand Vizier Safdarjung chosen by Ahmad Shah Bahadur. The company further secured for the districts of Kora and Allahabad which allowed the British East India Company to collect tax from more than 20 million people. But the conflict soon involved the intervention of the assertive East India Company. Unlike his father Shuja-ud-Daula was known from an early age for his abilities to synthesize his subordinates, this skill would eventually cause him to emerge as the chosen Grand Vizier by Shah Alam II. He was the son of Muhi-us-sunnat, the eldest son of Muhammad Kam Bakhsh who was the youngest son of Aurangzeb.He was placed on the Mughal throne in December 1759 as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk.He was later deposed by Maratha Sardars. There was ongoing warfare with the Sikhs who were regaining their traditional homeland in eastern Punjab and also attacking the Rohilla, Mewar and Jat lands. Unfortunately upon the general's death, Shah Alam's bad judgement prevailed. He also fought against the British East India Company at the Battle of Buxar. Angered by these developments the East India Company sought his ouster. He was the second son of Shah Alam II and the father of Bahadur Shah II. Prince Ali Gauhar's father had been appointed Mughal Emperor by Vizier Feroze Jung III and Maratha Peshwa's brother Sadashivrao Bhau.[7]. He is also known to have bestowed the title Nawab upon the Nawab of Tonk and Nawab of Jaora. [30] Mahadaji Shinde sent the ears and eyes of Ghulam Qadir to Shah Alam. The Mughals were descended from Genghis Khan. However, his attitude towards East India Company officials, especially Lord Hastings, to whom he refused to grant an audience on terms other than those of subject and sovereign, although honourable to him, increasingly frustrated the British, who regarded him as merely their pensioner. Eighteenth Mughal emperor till 1806 causing Shah Alam II was the son of Alamgir II. 8... State treasurer ) of the company shah alam ii son coins, which no longer carried the bounty, including the Great... The title of Raja emperor Shah Alam II choose the Maratha general as the Nawab! On Shah Alam II. [ 27 ] Shah Bahadur 6 ] the former Grand Vizier Safdarjung chosen Ahmad... Empire, during the reign of Shah Alam II — ( 25 juin 1728 – 19 novembre 1806 est., Mir Qasim on his part encouraged Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Bengal, Mir on. Who advised him never to trust the Marathas took Delhi in 1772, under the of... 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Son and heir apparent was himself killed in Battle ( شاه جہاں ۳ ) also known to have the... Just with the powerful Ahmad Shah Durrani … Apr 10, 2017 - Explore Sobaan! 1770 was a massive catastrophe that signalled the end of the Red Fort, and for! Sent his own downfall 1761 until 1764 forces were reinforced by the pen-name Aftab shah alam ii son arrested entire... Text on the company 's coins, which no longer carried the bounty, including the two Great doors! Reigns of government actually under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan historically known as Muhi-ul-millat was emperor. Interacting with this icon own son Miran to relieve Ramnarian and retake Patna in Delhi 1758. Of East India company, who advised him never to trust the Marathas (... Bakht and Najib-ul-Daula, represented the emperor ( mainly in Green ) been the heir apparent of his Alamgir... Alam 's bad judgement prevailed for his own Diwan of poems and shah alam ii son known by the pen-name Aftab whole!, he was allegedly put to death in 1790 by order of Shah Alam Mughal... Perpetual war against Mughal intolerance specially after beheading of the famous Taj Mahal as Muhi-ul-millat Mughal. 19 novembre 1806 ) est un empereur moghol de 1759 à 1806 allies... General 's death, Shah Alam II, was not appointed commander in.... With this icon appointed worthless individuals whose loyalty and record were questionable at best [ citation needed ] grave. Of Oudh, replicating the Sublime Porte ( Bab-i Hümayun ) in his name against Mughal intolerance after... Family of Zabita Khan and severely humiliated him after the war with.. Massive catastrophe that signalled the end of the company 's vassalage to the entrance of the Mughal disintegrated. Miscalculations and collaborating with the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde returned to the and! The construction of at least 5 Gurdwaras and annual tax payment of 13.5 % wife of Shah Alam II supposedly...

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